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Kolumne: "Music in the kitchen" - ITAL IS VITAL - about Reggae, Rastamovement and a spiritual Journey

The movement ase Rasta is a very privilege for me: INI Ras Tafari , The Battle of Adwa , Great Caribian Heros like Paul Bogle, Bob Marley, Taj Weekes, ... Afrikan Spirit and Reggaemusic - INI still continue learning and still INI hungry for more to experience on the way: to listen and to watch and learn and know about life in general, is a personal mission, ase Spirit inna Body...wahgwaan ! INI choose every day new, to move on and INI thankfull fi all blessings and the guidance of the Mosthigh on my way home to the Motherland, Fatherland - Yes aya Zion is my direction, after 40 years inna Babylon. So long ! But everything is about to stay humble and grateful and share with others, wha me did learn: in the name of Jah Ras Tafari, thy will shall prevail. Haile Empress Menen. Learn, Listen to the Elders and to the Iniverse ...the wind will tell it to the mountains, on the peak of Mount Zion we dwell, well we dwell on the peak we wanna stay until that day:

Bob Marley, Song "so much things to say" Album:Exodus

about Paul Bogle.....the hero, who was trying to free Jamaica from slavery long time ago...1865:

Lyrics of the Bob Marley Song "So much Things to say": https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0EXg0zn46eI


..."On 7th October 1865 a black Jamaican was charged with and found guilty of trespassing on a long abandoned plantation. The local population protested about this and a group from the village of Stony Gut freed the man by force. Returning to their village Bogle discovered that the 27 men of the village now had warrants for arrest for a range of offences including rioting, and assaulting the police.

On October 11 1865 Paul Bogle lead 200-300 black men and women into the town of Morant Bay, in what became known as the Morant Bay Rebellion. Bogle’s group marched to the court house to protest about the arrest warrants but were met by a local militia who in panic opened fire and killed seven of the protesters. This sparked a riot during which another 18 people died. What started as a protest became a rebellion, with the town under the control of the rebels whose numbered quickly swelled to over 2000, with another two deaths in the following days.

The White planter population feared that the revolt would spread to the rest of Jamaica and the British Governor of Jamaica Edward Eyre sent troops to quickly put down the uprising. In reality the uprising had now calmed and was far from the armed insurrection perceived by the white population and the troops met little resistance but this did not prevent a brutal response with many deaths among the black population whether they had been involved in the uprising or not.

The statistics are grim - 439 black Jamaicans were killed by troops, 354 black Jamaicans were arrested and later executed and 600 punishments including floggings and prison sentences were carried out.

Paul Bogle was one of those arrested and later executed, while his friend and supporter George Gordon, who had very little to do with the uprising, was arrested in Kingston, tried under martial law and hanged on October 23rd.  The rebellion and its effects had a huge impact on Jamaica and Britain at the time. In Britain it caused public debate with views being polarized into two camps - those supporting Governors Eyre’s response and those who believed that he should be tried for murder.

In August 1866 Eyre returned to the UK. Those opposed to his actions set up the Jamaica Committee; this included various liberal politicians including Charles Darwin and John Stuart Mill. Eyre was in fact charged twice with murder but the charges never got to trial.  In Jamaica what started as a small riot led to the Jamaican Assembly renouncing its charter and Jamaica becoming a crown colony.

Paul Bogle was later named a National Hero of Jamaica and his head appeared on the Jamaican $2 note from 1969 until it was phased out in 1989, and on the 10c coin since 1991."...

..."Suggested Reading
The Morant Bay rebellion, Mary Dixon
The Killing Time: The Morant Bay Rebellion in Jamaica, Gad Heuman"...

(Quelle: Dugdale-Pointon, T. (22 September 2008), Paul Bogle, 1822-1865 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_bogle_paul.html )

+++

Ethiopia, 

Battle of Adwa...: 

..."The Battle of Adwa (also called Adowa and Adua) was fought over two days (1st / 2nd March) between Ethiopian forces under Emperor Menelik II and invading Italian forces, and was the deciding battle in the First Italo-Ethiopian war and a turning point in modern African history with a European Colonial power being defeated and Ethiopia being recognised as a sovereign nation state by the European powers.

As the scramble for Africa came to an end Italy was allocated Ethiopia but just needed to take control. Ethiopia was largely unknown to Europeans who were aware of the coastal areas due to trade but the central highlands had resisted any attempts to spread European influence. The Italians wrongly assumed that Ethiopia was made up of rival tribes and thought it would be a quick victory for their 20,000 strong invasion forces, only to face a united country with a much larger army.

Emperor Menelik II had swept away old fashioned recruiting systems which had led to defeat by British forces previously and replaced them with much better organisation and supply. With a better organised economy the Ethiopian Emperor had greatly increased his ability to raise and equip an army and he reacted quickly when the Italian plans became known. Within two months he had raised 100,000 troops while the Empress Taitu raised 6,000.  This Army also included troops raised by regional governors such as the future father of the Emperor Haile Selassie, Ras Tafari Makonnen who commanded 12,000 troops.

Equipment was also greatly improved with in excess of 70,000 modern rifles and 5 million rounds of ammunition being available for the battle of Adwa not including artillery. This mobilization was not without problems and delays and this gave the Italians time to become established.

The Italian forces were led by General Oreste Baraterie. His plan was to engage the Ethiopians in piecemeal battles and carve them up without facing their main force in a set piece battle. The Ethiopians on the other hand planned to use their advantage in infantry and artillery to smash the main Italian force in one battle, Menelik carefully build his alliance of princes but knew that he needed a decisive battle as he might not be able to hold the alliance together for a long protracted campaign. Ethiopian tactics and strategy were based on their own history and terrain and this was largely unknown to the Italians, so basing their ideas on the British experience the Italians expected to face a force one third of the size of Menelik’s Army.

By early 1896 both sides were running out of time, the Ethiopians living off the land, the Italian general under political pressure to act. Baraterie lacked confidence and this he displayed with a meeting with his officers on 29th February, present were brigadiers Matteo Albertone, Giuseppe Arimondi, Giuseppe Ellena and Vittorio Dabormida. During the meeting many of the officers argued for an attack and Baraterie finally decided to go ahead after several hours. The Italian forces were made up of around 18,000 infantry and 56 artillery guns, but several thousand Italian troops were allocated to supply duties and the remaining force included many inexperienced troops and some Eritrean lead by Italian officers, equipment was poor and morale low.

Menelik’s forces are likely to have numbered in excess of 100,000, the majority being riflemen but also a large number of lance armed cavalry. The Italian battle plan was for 3 columns which could provide fire support to each other but overnight they become separated and were several miles apart in rugged terrain. The battle was a bloody affair with the Italians fighting hard despite being out numbered. Slowly but surely the greater Ethiopian numbers had their toll. Albertone's column broke first and then Dabormida’s column was cut off and fell back.  Brigadier Dabormida now made a fatal error as he retreated back into a narrow valley where Ethiopian lancers wiped them out, his body was never recovered.  The last of the invading army was slowly destroyed and by mid day the battle was finished, over 7,000 Italians died with the Ethiopians suffering a similar number of casualties. The Italians taken prisoner were treated well but Ethiopian troops (around 800) who had fought for the Italians were mutilated with their right hands and left feet being cut off.

The battle proved to be a crushing defeat and the Ethiopians followed up, driving the retreating Italians into Eritrea and out of the area entirely.  The Treaty of Addis Abba on 26th October 1896 ended the war and the Italians recognised Ethiopian independence. The Italians did not give up on the idea of an Africa Empire and tried again under Benito Mussolini in the 1930s this time establishing their control before being driven off. In the aftermath of that defeat the Ethiopians freed Eritrea and returned it to Ethiopian control."

(Quelle: Dugdale-Pointon, T. (19 February 2009), Battle of Adwa, 1-2 March 1896 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_adwa.html)

 

Ras Tafari, Menelik I. and II., The first and oldest version of the Holy Bibel....read the Bibel and listen to the word sound power of the Rastafari Artists like, for example:

St. Lucia’s Goodwill and Brand Ambassador Taj Weekes speaks to Calabash TV

Singer/songwriter, reggae artiste, poet and humanitarian Taj Weekes speaks to Bernard Fanis of Calabash TV about his TOCO Foundation [The Often Cry Outreach], his appointment as a Goodwill and Brand Ambassador and his music.
 
 
This is my share for INI pipo, who like to learn and know more...Redaktion:Kandakekweensize at free radio Wüste Welle 96,6fm Tü.
yall are free to share too....give thank to thy mighty Jah Ras Tafari & Empress Menen.
 
 
 

Roots and Reggae Artist and Aktivist speaks about Spiritual Awareness and the Journey of Life , Love ase Essence of Good ova Evals inna Babylon Destruction and Angry Language ....Ethiopian Roots and the Battle of Adwa--->Watch the youtube Video:


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